Greek and Latin for Medicine

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これはと医学用語のための語幹と接尾辞と接頭辞とのリストであって、その意味と語源を併せて表示しています.

医学的語幹の使用時には、いくつかの原則ルールがあります。 連結するときに-o-でつなぐか、それを落とすか、というルール。 語幹、接尾辞、接頭辞は古典ギリシャ語で揃えるか、ラテン語で揃えるかのどちらかとするのが原則です。

混ぜて用いている場合も医学以外を中心に認められますが、混用は避けるのが適当です。


接尾辞と接頭辞

以下は医学用語の接尾辞と接頭辞をアルファベット順に並べたものです。意味と語源と英単語の例を示しています


A

Prefix or suffix 意味(日本語で) Meaning Origin language and etymology Example(s)
a-, an- 不、非、…なしで not, without Ancient Greek ἀ-/ἀν- (a-/an-), without, not Analgesic 鎮痛薬, apathy 無気力
ab- 離れて、遠くへ away Latin Abduction 外転
abdomin(o)- abdomen(腹部)の、に関する Of or relating to the abdomen Latin (abdōmen), abdomen, fat around the belly Abdomen
-ac, -acal …に関する pertaining to Greek -ακός (-akos) cardiac 心臓の, hydrophobiac 恐水病の, pharmacomaniacal
acanth(o)- 棘、針、とがったもの thorn or spine Ancient Greek ἄκανθα (akantha), thorn acanthion 鼻棘点, acanthocyte 有棘細胞, acanthoma 棘細胞腫, acanthulus
acous(io)- 聞くこと・聴覚の、に関した Of or relating to hearing Greek ἀκουστικός (acoustikos), of or for hearing acoumeter 聴力系(=audiometer), acoustician 音響技師
acr(o)- 先端、極値 extremity, topmost Greek ἄκρον (テンプレート:Not a typo), highest or farthest point Acrocrany, acromegaly 先端肥大症, acroosteolysis 肢端骨溶解症, acroposthia
-acusis 聞くこと、聴覚 hearing Greek ἀκουστικός (acoustikos), of or for hearing paracusis
-ad …に向かって toward, in the direction of dorsad
ad- 増加、付着、…への動き、程度が強いこと increase, adherence, motion toward, very Latin Adduction 内転
aden(o)-, aden(i)- 腺の、に関する Of or relating to a gland Ancient Greek ἀδήν, ἀδέν- (adēn, aden-), an acorn; a gland Adenocarcinoma 腺癌, adenology, adenotome, adenotyphus
adip(o)- 脂肪・脂肪組織の、に関する Of or relating to fat or fatty tissue Latin (adeps, adip-), fat Adipocyte 脂肪細胞
adren(o)- 副腎の、に関する Of or relating to adrenal glands Latin adrenal artery 副腎動脈
-aemia (BrE) 血液の状態 blood condition Greek ἀναιμία, without blood Anaemia 貧血
aer(o)- 空気、気体 air, gas Greek ἀήρ, ἀέρος Aerosinusitis 航空性副鼻腔炎
aesthesio- (BrE) 感覚 sensation Greek αἴσθησις Anesthesia 麻酔
-al に関する pertaining to Latin -alis abdominal
alb- Denoting a white or pale color Latin albus, white Albino
alge(si)- 痛み pain Greek ἄλγος Analgesic
-algia 痛み pain Greek Myalgia
alg(i)o- 痛み pain Greek Myalgia
allo- 異なる何か、付加的何かであることを指し示す Denoting something as different, or as an addition Ancient Greek ἄλλος (allos), another, other Alloantigen, allopathy
ambi- 両側性であること、2つあるものがそろって、であることを指し示す Denoting something as positioned on both sides; Describing both of two Latin (ambi-, ambo), both, on both sides Ambidextrous
amnio- 胎嚢に関する Pertaining to the membranous fetal sac (amnion) Greek ἄμνιον Amniocentesis
amph-, amphi- 両側で on both sides Greek ἀμφί (amphi) Amphicrania, amphismela, amphomycin
an- 不、非、…なしで not, without Greek Analgesia
ana- 戻って、再度 back, again, up Greek Anaplasia
an(o) 肛門 anus Latin
andr(o)- 男に関する pertaining to a man Greek ἀνήρ, ἀνδρ- Android, andrology
angi(o)- 血管 blood vessel Greek ἀγγεῖον Angiogram
aniso- 等しくないことを指し示す Describing something as unequal Ancient Greek ἄνῑσος (anīsos), unequal Anisocytosis, anisotropic
ankyl(o)-, ancyl(o)- 曲がっていること、湾曲していることを指し示す Denoting something as crooked or bent Ancient Greek ἀγκύλος (ankýlos), crooked, curved Ankylosis
ante- ...の前にある Describing something as positioned in front of another thing Latin (āntē), before, in front of antepartum
anti- …もう片方に反対している、対立していること Describing something as 'against' or 'opposed to' another Ancient Greek αντι (anti), against Antibody, antipsychotic
apo- …から分離された、から引き出された separated from, derived from Ancient Greek ἀπό Apoptosis
arch(i,e,o) 第一の、初歩的な first, primitive archinephron : first formed kidney
arsen(o)- 男の、に関する、男性的な Of or pertaining to a male; masculine Greek (arsein)
arteri(o)- 動脈の、に関する Of or pertaining to an artery Ancient Greek ἀρτηρία (artēría), a wind-pipe, artery (used distinctly versus a vein) Arteriole, artery
arthr(o)- 関節・四肢の、に関する Of or pertaining to the joints, limbs Ancient Greek αρθρος (arthros), a joint, limb Arthritis
articul(o)- 関節 joint Latin articulum Articulation
-ary …に関する pertaining to Latin -arius bilary tract
-ase 酵素 enzyme Greek διάστασις, division Lactase
-asthenia 筋力が弱いこと、弱いこと weakness Greek, ἀσθένεια Myasthenia gravis
atel(o) 不完全な発達 imperfect or incomplete development atelocardia : imperfect development of the heart
ather(o)- 脂肪の付着・沈着、やわらかい粥様のものの付着・沈着 fatty deposit, Soft gruel-like deposit Atherosclerosis
-ation 過程 process Latin Habitation, Lubrication
atri(o)- 房、心房 an atrium (esp. heart atrium) atrioventricular
aur(i)- 耳の、に関する Of or pertaining to the ear Latin (auris), the ear Aural
aut(o)- 自身 self Greek αὐτο- Autoimmune
aux(o)- 増加、成長 increase; growth auxocardia : enlargement of the heart
axill- 腋下の、に関する Of or pertaining to the armpit [uncommon as a prefix] Latin (axilla), armpit Axilla
azo(to) 窒素を含む、に関する化合物、窒素化合物 nitrogenous compound azothermia : raised temperature due to nitrogenous substances in blood

B

Prefix or suffix 意味(日本語で) Meaning Origin language and etymology Example(s)
balano- 陰茎亀頭・陰核亀頭の Of the glans penis or glans clitoridis Greek βάλανος - balanos, acorn, glans Balanitis
bi- 2度、2重 twice, double Latin Binary
bio- 生命 life Ancient Greek βίος Biology
blast(o)- 胚の、芽の germ or bud Greek βλαστός Blastomere
blephar(o)- 瞼の、に関する Of or pertaining to the eyelid Ancient Greek βλέφαρον (blépharon), eyelid Blepharoplast
brachi(o)- 腕の、に関する Of or relating to the arm Latin (brachium), from Ancient Greek βραχίων (brachiōn), arm Brachium of inferior colliculus
brachy- 短いことを指し示す、小さいことを指し示すこともある Indicating 'short' or less commonly 'little' Ancient Greek βραχύς (brachys), short, little, shallow brachycephalic
brady- 遅い、ゆっくり 'slow' Ancient Greek βραδύς (bradys), slow Bradycardia
bronch(i)- 気管支 bronchus Bronchiolitis obliterans
bucc(o)- 頬の、に関する Of or pertaining to the cheek Latin (bucca), cheek Buccolabial
burs(o)- 滑液包 bursa (fluid sac between the bones) Latin Bursitis

C

Prefix or suffix 意味(日本語で) Meaning Origin language and etymology Example(s)
capill- 毛髪の、に関する Of or pertaining to hair Latin (capillus), hair Capillus
capit- 頭全体に関する Pertaining to the head (as a whole) Latin (caput, capit-), the head Capitation
carcin(o)- cancer Greek καρκίνος (karkinos), crab Carcinoma
cardi(o)- 心臓の、に関する Of or pertaining to the heart Ancient Greek καρδία (kardía), heart Cardiology
carp(o)- 手首の、に関する Of or pertaining to the wrist Latin (carpus) < Ancient Greek καρπός (karpós), wrist; NOTE: This root should not be confused with the mirror root carp(o)- meaning fruit. Carpopedal
cata- 下がる、下の down, under Greek κατά (kata) Cataract
-cele ポーチ状・小袋状になって pouching, hernia Ancient Greek κήλη (kēlē) Hydrocele, Varicocele
-centesis 吸引のために針を刺すこと surgical puncture for aspiration Ancient Greek κέντησις (kentēsis) Amniocentesis
cephal(o)- 頭全体の、に関する Of or pertaining to the head (as a whole) Ancient Greek κεφαλή (képhalē), the head Cephalalgy
cerat(o)- 角の、に関する Of or pertaining to the cornu; a horn Ancient Greek κέρας, κερατ- (kéras, kerat-), a horn Ceratoid
cerebell(o)- 小脳の、に関する Of or pertaining to the cerebellum Latin (cerebellum), little brain Cerebellum
cerebr(o)- (大)脳の、に関する Of or pertaining to the brain Latin (cerebrum), brain Cerebrology
cervic- 首の、に関する Of or pertaining to the neck, the cervix Latin (cervix, cervīc-), neck, cervix Cervicodorsal
chem(o)- 化学、薬 chemistry, drug Greek χημεία Chemotherapy
chir(o)-, cheir(o)- 手の、に関する Of or pertaining to the hand Ancient Greek χείρ, χειρο- (cheir, cheiro-), hand Chiropractor
chlor(o)- 緑色を指し示す Denoting a green color Ancient Greek χλωρός (chloros), green, yellow-green Chlorophyll
chol(e)- 胆汁の、に関する Of or pertaining to bile Ancient Greek χολή (cholē), bile Cholaemia
cholecyst(o)- 胆嚢の、に関する Of or pertaining to the gallbladder Ancient Greek χοληκύστις (cholēkýstis), gallbladder < χολή (cholē), bile, gall + κύστις (kýstis), bladder Cholecystectomy
chondr(i)o- 軟骨、すじ、粒状 cartilage, gristle, granule, granular Ancient Greek χονδρός (chondros) Chondrocalcinosis
chrom(ato)- color Ancient Greek χρῶμα Hemochromatosis
-cidal, -cide 殺す、破壊する killing, destroying Latin bacteriocidal
cili- 線毛まつ毛の、に関する Of or pertaining to the cilia, the eyelashes; eyelids < Latin (cilium), eyelash; eyelid Ciliary
circum- 相手を取り囲むことを指し示す Denoting something as 'around' another Latin (circum), around Circumcision
cis- こちら側に on this side Latin (cis)
clast 壊す break Greek κλαστός osteoclast
co- 共に、一緒に、共同して with, together, in association Latin coenzymes
col-, colo-, colono- 大腸 colon Colonoscopy
colp(o)- 膣の、に関する Of or pertaining to the vagina Ancient Greek κόλπος (kólpos), bosom, womb; hollow, depth Colposcopy
com- ともに、一緒に with, together Latin
contra 反対して against Latin Contraindicate
cor- 共に、一緒に with, together Latin
cor-, core-, coro- 瞳孔の、に関する Of or pertaining to eye's pupil Ancient Greek κόρη (kórē), girl, doll; pupil of the eye Corectomy
cordi- 心臓の、に関する Of or pertaining to the heart [Uncommon as a prefix] Latin (cor, cordi-), heart Commotio cordis
cornu- 角や角状のものの部分や、そのようなものが関わる過程を意味する Applied to processes and parts of the body describing them likened or similar to horns Latin (cornū), horn
coron(o)- crown Latin corōna (“garland, crown”)
cost(o)- 肋骨の、に関する Of or pertaining to the ribs Latin (costa), rib Costochondral
cox- 股関節の、に関する Of or relating to the hip, haunch, or hip-joint Latin (coxa), hip Coxopodite
crani(o)- 頭蓋に関する、頭蓋に帰属する Belonging or relating to the cranium Latin (cranium) < Ancient Greek κρᾱνίον (krānion), the cranium, skull, bones enclosing the brain Craniology
-crine 分泌する to secrete εκκρίνει ecrine Endocrine
cry(o)- 冷たい cold Greek κρύος Cryoablation
cutane- 皮膚 skin Latin cutis Subcutaneous
cyan(o)- 青い色を指し示す Denotes a blue color Ancient Greek κύανος, κυάνεος (kýanos, kyáneos), blue Cyanopsia
cycl- 輪、循環 circle, cycle Greek κύκλος (kuklos)
cyph(o)- 湾曲 Denotes something as bent (uncommon as a prefix) Ancient Greek κυφός (kȳphós), bent, hunchback Cyphosis
cyst(o)-, cyst(i)- 膀胱の、に関する Of or pertaining to the urinary bladder Ancient Greek κύστις (kýstis); bladder, cyst Cystotomy
cyt(o)- 細胞 cell Greek κύτος Cytokine
-cyte 細胞 cell Greek Leukocyte

D

Prefix or suffix 意味(日本語で) Meaning Origin language and etymology Example(s)
dacryo- tear Greek δάκρυ
dactyl(o)- 指・趾 Of or pertaining to a finger, toe Ancient Greek δάκτυλος (dáktylos), finger, toe Dactylology,Sclenodactyly(指尖硬化)
de- とれて、離れて、 away from, cessation Latin de-
dent- Of or pertaining to teeth Latin (dens, dentis), tooth Dentist
dermat(o)-, derm(o)- 皮膚 Of or pertaining to the skin Ancient Greek δέρμα, δέρματ- (dérma, démat-), skin, human skin Dermatology,Scleroderma(皮膚硬化症)
-desis binding Greek δέσις (desis) arthrodesis
dextr(o)- right, on the right side Latin dexter Dextrocardia
di- 二つ two Greek δι- Diplopia
di- apart, separation Latin
dia- (same as Greek meaning) Ancient Greek διά (diá), through, during, across Diacetyl
dif- 離れて、分離して apart, separation Latin
digit- Of or pertaining to the finger [rare as a root] Latin (digitus), finger, toe Digit
-dipsia suffix meaning "(condition of) thirst"' polydipsia hydroadipsia, oligodipsia
dis- 離れて separation, taking apart Latin dis- Dissection
dors(o)-, dors(i)- Of or pertaining to the back Latin (dorsum), back dorsal, Dorsocephalad
duodeno- 十二 duodenum, twelve: upper part of the small intestine (twelve inches long on average), connects to the stomach Latin duodeni Duodenal atresia
dynam(o)- force, energy, power Greek δύναμις (dunamis) Dynamic
-dynia 伊丹 pain Vulvodynia
dys- 悪い、難しい bad, difficult Greek δυσ- Dysphagia, dysphasia

E

Prefix or suffix 意味(日本語で) Meaning Origin language and etymology Example(s)
-eal に関する pertaining to Latin adenohypophyseal, corneal, esophageal, perineal
ec- 外れて、異所の out, away Greek ἐκ- (ek-) Ectopia, ectopic pregnancy
ect(o)- 外側 outer, outside Greek ἐκτός Ectoblast, ectoderm
-ectasia, -ectasis 拡張 expansion, dilation Ancient Greek ἔκτασις Bronchiectasis, telangiectasia
-ectomy 切除術 Denotes a surgical operation or removal of a body part. Resection, excision Ancient Greek ἐκτομή (ectomē), excision Mastectomy
-emesis 吐く状態 vomiting condition Greek ἕμεσις Hematemesis
-emia 血液 blood condition (AmE) Greek ἀν-αιμία, without blood Anemia,Leukemia
encephal(o)- 脳の Of or pertaining to the brain. Also see Cerebro. Ancient Greek ἐγκέφαλος (enképhalos), the brain Encephalogram
endo- 内側の Denotes something as 'inside' or 'within' Ancient Greek ἐνδο- (endo-), inside, internal Endocrinology, endospore
eosin(o)- 赤の、好酸 Red Eosin comes from Eos, the Greek word for 'dawn' and the name of the Greek goddess of the dawn. Eosinophil granulocyte
enter(o)- Of or pertaining to the intestine Ancient Greek ἔντερον (énteron), intestine Gastroenterology
epi- on, upon Ancient Greek ἐπι- (epi-), before, upon, on, outside, outside of Epicardium, epidermis, epidural, episclera, epistaxis
episi(o)- Of or pertaining to the pubic region, the loins Ancient Greek ἐπίσιον- (epísion), the pubic area, loins; vulva Episiotomy
erythr(o)- Denotes a red color Ancient Greek ἐρυθρός (erythros), red Erythrocyte
-esophageal, -esophago- gullet (AmE) Greek οἰσοφάγος (oisophágos)
esthesio- sensation (AmE) Greek αἴσθησις {aisthēsis)
eu- true, good, well, new Greek Eukaryote
ex- out of, away from Latin Excision, exophthalmos
exo- Denotes something as 'outside' another Ancient Greek ἐξω- (exo-), outside of, external Exoskeleton
extra- outside Latin Extradural hematoma

F

Prefix/suffix Meaning Origin language and etymology Example(s)
faci(o)- Of or pertaining to the face Latin (faciēs), the face, countenance Facioplegic
fibr(o) fiber Fibroblast
filli- fine, hair like
-form, -iform Used to form adjectives indicating 'having the form of' Latin (forma), form, shape Cuneiform
fossa A hollow or depressed area; trench or channel Latin (fossa), ditch, pit fossa ovalis
front- Of or pertaining to the forehead Latin (frōns, front-), the forehead Frontonasal

G

Prefix/suffix Meaning Origin language and etymology Example(s)
galact(o)- milk Greek γάλα, γαλακτ- Galactorrhea
gastr(o)- Of or pertaining to the stomach Ancient Greek γαστήρ (gastēr), γαστρ-, stomach, belly Gastric bypass
-gen (1) Denotes the sense 'born in, from' (2) Denotes the sense 'of a certain kind' Ancient Greek -γενής (-genēs) < γεν-νάειν (gen-náein), to be born (1) Endogen; (2) Heterogenous
-genic Formative, pertaining to producing Greek Cardiogenic shock
genu- Of or pertaining to the knee Latin (genū), knee Genu valgum
gingiv- Of or pertaining to the gums Latin (gingīva), gum Gingivitis
glauc(o)- Denoting a grey or bluish-grey colour Ancient Greek γλαυκός (glaukos), grey, bluish-grey Glaucoma
gloss(o)-, glott(o)- Of or pertaining to the tongue Ancient Greek γλῶσσα, γλῶττα (glōssa, glōtta), tongue Glossology
gluco- sweet Greek γλυκός, sweet Glucocorticoid
glyco- sugar Glycolysis
gnath(o)- Of or pertaining to the jaw Ancient Greek γνάθος (gnáthos), jaw Gnathodynamometer
-gnosis knowledge Greek diagnosis, prognosis
gon(o)- seed, semen; also, reproductive Ancient Greek γόνος Gonorrhea
-gram, -gramme record or picture Greek γράμμα (gramma) Angiogram
-graph instrument used to record data or picture Ancient Greek -γραφία (-graphía), written, drawn, graphic interpretation Electrocardiograph
-graphy process of recording Angiography
gyn(aec)o- (BrE), gyn(ec)o- (AmE) woman Greek γυνή, γυναικ- Gynecomastia

H

Prefix/suffix Meaning Origin language and etymology Example(s)
halluc- to wander in mind Classical Latin to wander in mind Hallucinosis
hemat-, haemato- (haem-, hem-) Of or pertaining to blood Latin (hæma) < Ancient Greek αἵμα, αἱματ- (haima, haimat-), blood Hematology, older form Haematology
hema or hemo- blood (AmE) Greek Hematological malignancy
hemangi or hemangio- blood vessels
hemi- one-half Ancient Greek ἡμι- (hēmi-), "half" Cerebral hemisphere
hepat- (hepatic-) Of or pertaining to the liver Ancient Greek ἥπαρ, ἡπατο- (hēpar, hēpato-), the liver Hepatology
heter(o)- Denotes something as 'the other' (of two), as an addition, or different Ancient Greek ἕτερος (héteros), the other (of two), another; different Heterogeneous
hidr(o)- sweat Greek ἱδρωτ- Hyperhidrosis
hist(o)-, histio- tissue Greek ἱστός Histology
home(o)- similar Ancient Greek ὅμοιος (homoios) Homeopathy
hom(o)- Denotes something as 'the same' as another or common Ancient Greek ὁμο- (homo-), the same, common Homosexuality
テンプレート:Not a typo(o)- Of or pertaining to the shoulder (or [rarely] the upper arm) Incorrect Etymology < Latin (umerus), shoulder Humerus
hydr(o)- water Greek ὕδωρ Hydrophobe
hyper- Denotes something as 'extreme' or 'beyond normal' Ancient Greek ὑπέρ (hyper), over, above; beyond, to the extreme Hypertension
hyp(o)- Denotes something as 'below normal' Ancient Greek ὑπ(ο)- (hypo-), below, under Hypovolemia,
hyster(o)- Of or pertaining to the womb, the uterus Ancient Greek ὑστέρα (hystéra), womb Hysterectomy

I

Prefix/suffix Meaning Origin language and etymology Example(s)
-i-asis condition Greek -ίασις Mydriasis
iatr(o)- Of or pertaining to medicine, or a physician [uncommon as a prefix; common as as suffix, see -iatry] Ancient Greek ἰᾱτρός (iātrós), healer, physician Iatrochemistry
-iatry Denotes a field in medicine of a certain body component Ancient Greek ἰᾱτρός (iātrós), healer, physician Podiatry, Psychiatry
-ic pertaining to Greek -ικός (-ikos) Hepatic artery
-icle small Latin Ovarian follicle
-ics organized knowledge, treatment Latin -ica < Greek < -ικά Obstetrics
idio- self, one's own Greek ἴδιος, idios, "one's own" Idiopathic
ileo- ileum Greek ἰλεός Ileocecal valve
infra- below Latin Infrahyoid muscles
inter- between, among Latin Interarticular ligament
intra- within Latin Intracranial hemorrhage
ipsi- same Latin Ipsilateral hemiparesis
irid(o)- iris Greek ἴρις Iridectomy
isch- restriction Greek ἴσχω Ischemia
ischio- Of or pertaining to the ischium, the hip-joint Ancient Greek ἰσχιόν (ischión), hip-joint, ischium Ischioanal fossa
-ism condition, disease Dwarfism
-ismus spasm, contraction Greek -ισμός Hemiballismus
iso- Denoting something as being 'equal' Ancient Greek ἴσος (ísos), equal Isotonic
-ist one who specializes in Greek -ιστής (-istes) Pathologist
-ite the nature of, resembling Greek -ίτης Hermaphrodite
-itis inflammation Tonsillitis
-ium structure, tissue pericardium

K

Prefix/suffix Meaning Origin language and etymology Example(s)
kal/i potassium
karyo- nucleus Greek κάρυον, "nut" Eukaryote
kerat(o)- cornea (eye or skin) Greek Keratoscope
kin(e)-, kin(o), kinesi(o)- movement Greek κινέω Kinesthesia
koil(o)- hollow Greek κοῖλος (koilos) Koilocyte
kyph(o)- humped Greek κυφός Kyphoscoliosis

L

Prefix/suffix Meaning Origin language and etymology Example(s)
labi(o)- Of or pertaining to the lip Latin (labium), lip Labiodental
lacrim(o)- tear Latin Lacrimal canaliculi
lact(i)-, lact(o) milk Latin Lactation
lapar(o)- Of or pertaining to the abdomen-wall, flank Ancient Greek λαπάρᾱ (lapárā), flank Laparotomy
laryng(o)- Of or pertaining to the larynx, the lower throat cavity where the voice box is Ancient Greek λάρυγξ, λαρυγγ- (lárynx, laryng-), throat, gullet Larynx
latero- lateral Latin Lateral pectoral nerve
lei(o)- smooth Greek λεῖος Leiomyoma
-lepsis, -lepsy attack, seizure Greek λῆψις Epilepsy, narcolepsy
lept(o)- light, slender Greek λεπτός (leptos) Leptomeningeal
leuc(o)-, leuk(o)- Denoting a white color Ancient Greek λευκός (leukos), white, bright Leukocyte
lingu(a)-, lingu(o)- Of or pertaining to the tongue Latin (lingua), tongue Linguistics
lip(o)- fat Greek λίπος Liposuction
lith(o)- stone, calculus Greek λίθος Lithotripsy
log(o)- speech Greek λόγος
-logist Denotes someone who studies a certain field: _____-logy Ancient Greek λογιστής (logistēs), studier, practitioner Oncologist, pathologist
-logy Denotes the academic study or practice of a certain field; The study of Ancient Greek λόγoς (logos) study hematology, urology
lymph(o)- lymph Greek λέμφος, λύμφη Lymphedema
lys(o)-, -lytic dissolution Greek Lysosome
-lysis Destruction, separation Greek λύσις Paralysis

M

Prefix/suffix Meaning Origin language and etymology Example(s)
macr(o)- large, long Greek μακρός Macrophage
-malacia softening Greek μαλακία Osteomalacia
mamm(o)- Of or pertaining to the breast Latin (mamma), breast; udder Mammogram
mammill(o)- Of or pertaining to the nipple Latin (mammilla), nipple
manu- Of or pertaining to the hand Latin (manus), hand Manufacture
mast(o)- Of or pertaining to the breast Ancient Greek μαστός (mastós), breast, women's breast; man's pectoral muscle Mastectomy
meg(a)-, megal(o)-, -megaly enlargement Greek μέγας Splenomegaly
melan(o)- black color Ancient Greek μέλας, μελανο- (melas, melano-), black; dark Melanin
melos extremity Ancient Greek μέλος erythromelalgia
mening(o)- membrane Greek μῆνιγξ, μηνιγγ- Meningitis
mero- part Greek μέρος (meros), part merocrine, meroblastic
mes(o)- middle Ancient Greek μέσος (mesos), "middle" Mesoderm
meta- after, behind Greek μετά Metacarpus
-meter instrument used to measure or count Greek μέτρον Sphygmomanometer
-metry process of measuring Greek -μετρία Optometry
metr(o)- Pertaining to conditions or instruments of the uterus Ancient Greek μήτρᾱ (mētrā), womb, uterus Metrorrhagia
micro- denoting something as small, or relating to smallness Ancient Greek μικρός (mikros), small Microscope
mon(o)- single Greek μονός Infectious mononucleosis
morph(o)- form, shape Greek μορφή Morphology
muscul(o)- muscle Latin Musculoskeletal system
my(o)- Of or relating to muscle Ancient Greek μῦς, μυ- (mys, my-), muscle; mouse; mussel Myoblast
myc(o)- fungus Greek μύκης, μυκητ- Onychomycosis
myel(o)- Of or relating to bone marrow Ancient Greek μυελόν (myelon), marrow; bone-marrow Myeloblast
myring(o)- eardrum Latin myringa Myringotomy
myx(o)- mucus Greek μύξα Myxoma

N

Prefix/suffix Meaning Origin language and etymology Example(s)
narc(o)- numb, sleep Greek νάρκη narcolepsy
nas(o)- Of or pertaining to the nose Latin (nāsum), nose nasal
necr(o)- death Greek νεκρός Necrotizing fasciitis
neo- new Greek νέος Neoplasm
nephr(o)- Of or pertaining to the kidney Ancient Greek νεφρός (nephrós), kidney Nephrology
nerv- Of or pertaining to nerves and the nervous system [Uncommon as a root: neuro- mostly always used] Latin (nervus), tendon; nerve; Cognate with the Greek νευρον (neuron) (see below) Nerve
neur(i)-, neur(o)- Of or pertaining to nerves and the nervous system Ancient Greek νεῦρον (neuron), tendon, sinew; nerve Neurofibromatosis
normo- normal Latin Normocapnia

O

Prefix/suffix Meaning Origin language and etymology Example(s)
ocul(o)- Of or pertaining to the eye Latin (oculus), the eye Oculist
odont(o)- Of or pertaining to teeth Ancient Greek ὀδούς, ὀδοντ- (odoús, odont-), tooth orthodontist
odyn(o)- pain Greek ὀδύνη stomatodynia
-oesophageal, oesophago- (BrE) gullet Greek οἰσοφάγος
-oid resemblance to Greek -οειδής Sarcoidosis
ole small or little Latin
olig(o)- Denoting something as 'having little, having few' Ancient Greek ὀλίγος (oligos), few Oligotrophy
om(o)- Of or pertaining to the shoulder Ancient Greek ὠμός (ōmos), shoulder Omoplate
-oma (singular), -omata (plural) tumor, mass, collection Greek -ωμα Sarcoma, Teratoma
omphal(o)- Of or pertaining to the navel, the umbilicus Ancient Greek ὀμφαλός (omphalós), navel, belly-button Omphalotomy
onco- tumor, bulk, volume Greek ὄγκος Oncology
onych(o)- Of or pertaining to the nail (of a finger or toe) Ancient Greek < ὄνυξ, ὀνυχο- (ónyx, ónycho-), nail; claw; talon Onychophagy
oo- Of or pertaining to the an egg, a woman's egg, the ovum Ancient Greek ᾠόν, ᾠο- (ōón, ōo-), egg, ovum Oogenesis
oophor(o)- Of or pertaining to the woman's ovary Neoclassical Greek ᾠοφόρον (ōophóron), ovary, egg-bearing Oophorectomy
ophthalm(o)- Of or pertaining to the eye Ancient Greek ὀφθαλμός (ophthalmós), the eye Ophthalmology
optic(o)- Of or relating to chemical properties of the eye Middle French (optique) < Greek ὀπτικός (optikós); ώψ(opsi), vision. Cognate with Latin oculus, relating to the eye Opticochemical, biopsy
or(o)- Of or pertaining to the mouth Latin (ōs, or-), mouth Oral
orchi(o)-, orchid(o)-, orch(o)- testis Greek ὀρχις (orkhis, orkhi-) Orchiectomy, Orchidectomy
orth(o)- Denoting something as straight or correct Ancient Greek ὀρθός (orthos), straight, correct, normal Orthodontist
-osis a condition, disease or increase Greek -ωσις Harlequin type ichthyosis, Psychosis, osteoperosis
osseo- bony Latin
ossi- bone Latin Peripheral ossifying fibroma
ost(e)-, oste(o)- bone Greek ὀστέον Osteoporosis
ot(o)- Of or pertaining to the ear Ancient Greek οὖς, ὠτ- (ous, ōt-), the ear Otopathy
-ous pertaining to Latin -osus
ovari(o)- Of or pertaining to the ovaries Latin (ōvarium), ovary Ovariectomy
ovo-, ovi-, ov- Of or pertaining to the eggs, the ovum Latin (ōvum), egg, ovum Ovogenesis
oxo- addition of oxygen Greek ὀξύς
oxy- sharp, acid, acute, oxygen Greek ὀξύς

P

Prefix/suffix Meaning Origin language and etymology Example(s)
pachy- thick Greek παχύς pachyderma
palpebr- Of or pertaining to the eyelid [uncommon as a root] Latin (palpebra), eyelid Palpebra
pan-, pant(o)- Denoting something as 'complete' or containing 'everything' Ancient Greek πᾶς, παν- (pas, pan-), all, every panophobia, panopticon
papill- Of or pertaining to the nipple (of the chest/breast) Latin (papilla), nipple; diminutive of papula (see below) Papillitis
papul(o)- Indicates papulosity, a small elevation or swelling in the skin, a pimple, swelling Latin (papula), pimple, pustle; a small elevation or swelling in the skin Papulation
para- alongside of, abnormal Ancient Greek παρά (para)
-paresis slight paralysis Greek πάρεσις hemiparesis
parvo- small Latin parvus Parvovirus
path(o)- disease Greek πάθος Pathology
-pathy Denotes (with a negative sense) a disease, or disorder Ancient Greek πάθος (pathos), suffering, accident sociopathy, neuropathy
pauci- Few Latin paucus Pauci-immune
ped-, -ped-, -pes Of or pertaining to the foot; -footed Latin pēs, pēd-, foot Pedoscope
pelv(i)-, pelv(o)- hip bone Latin Pelvis
-penia deficiency Greek πενία osteopenia
peo- Of or pertaining to the penis Greek πέος (peos) Peotomy
-pepsia Denotes something relating to digestion, or the digestive tract. Ancient Greek πεπτός (peptós) cooked, digested < πέσσω (péssō) I boil, cook; digest Dyspepsia
per- through Latin
peri- Denoting something with a position 'surrounding' or 'around' another Ancient Greek περί (peri), around Periodontal
-pexy fixation Greek πῆξις Nephropexy
phaco- lens-shaped Greek φακός phacolysis, phacometer, phacoscotoma
-phage, -phagia Forms terms denoting conditions relating to eating or ingestion Ancient Greek φαγία (phagía) eating < φαγεῖν (phagein) to eat Sarcophagia
-phago- eating, devouring Greek -φάγος phagocyte
phagist-: Forms nouns that denote a person who 'feeds on' the first element or part of the word Ancient Greek φαγιστής (phagistēs) eater; see -phagia Lotophagi
-phagy Forms nouns that denotes 'feeding on' the first element or part of the word Ancient Greek φαγία (phagia) eating; see -phagia Anthropophagy
phallo- phallus Greek φαλλός (phallos) Aphallia
pharmaco- drug, medication Greek φάρμακον pharmacology
pharyng(o)- Of or pertaining to the pharynx, the upper throat cavity Ancient Greek φάρυγξ, φαρυγγ- (phárynx, pháryng-), throat, windpipe; chasm Pharyngitis, Pharyngoscopy
-phil(ia) attraction for Greek φιλία Hemophilia
phleb(o)- Of or pertaining to the (blood) veins, a vein Ancient Greek φλέψ, φλεβ- (phleps, phlebo-), blood-vessel, vein Phlebography, Phlebotomy
-phobia exaggerated fear, sensitivity Greek φόβος arachnophobia
phon(o)- sound Greek φωνή phonograph, symphony
phos- Of or pertaining to light or its chemical properties, now historic and used rarely. See the common root phot(o)- below. Ancient Greek φῶς, φωτ- (phōs, phōt-), light Phosphene
phot(o)- Of or pertaining to light Ancient Greek φῶς, φωτ- (phōs, phōt-), light Photopathy
piri- Pear Latin pirum, pear Piriformis
phren(i)-, phren(o)-, phrenico the mind Greek φρήν, φρεν- Phrenic nerve, schizophrenia, diaphragm
-plasia formation, development Greek πλάσις Achondroplasia
-plasty surgical repair, reconstruction Greek πλαστός rhinoplasty
-plegia paralysis Greek πληγή paraplegia
pleio- more, excessive, multiple Greek pleion pleiomorphism
pleur(o)-, pleur(a) Of or pertaining to the ribs Latin (pleura) from Ancient Greek πλευρόν (pleurón), rib, side of the body Pleurogenous
-plexy stroke or seizure Greek πλῆξις Cataplexy
pneum(o)- Of or pertaining to the lungs Ancient Greek πνεύμων, πνευμον- (pneumōn, pneumon-), lung < πνεῦμα (pneuma), wind, spirit Pneumonocyte, Pneumonia
pneumat(o)- air, lung Ancient Greek
pod-, -pod-, -pus Of or pertaining to the foot, -footed Ancient Greek πούς, ποδ- (poús, pod-), foot Podiatry
-poiesis production hematopoiesis
polio- Denoting a grey color Ancient Greek πολιός (poliós), grey Poliomyelitis
poly- Denotes a 'plurality' of something Ancient Greek πολυς (polys), much, many Polymyositis
por(o)- pore, porous
porphyr(o)- Denotes a purple color Ancient Greek πορπύρα (porphýra), purple Porphyroblast
post- Denotes something as 'after' or 'behind' another Latin (post), after, behind Postoperation, Postmortem
pre- Denotes something as 'before' another (in [physical] position or time) Medieval Latin (pre-) < (Classical) Latin (præ), before, in front of Prematurity
presby(o)- old age Greek Presbyopia
prim- Denotes something as 'first' or 'most-important' Latin prīmus, first, most important Primary
pro- Denotes something as 'before' another (in [physical] position or time) Ancient Greek προ (pro), before, in front of Procephalic
proct(o)- anus, rectum proctology
prosop(o)- face Greek (prosopon), face, mask Prosopagnosia
prot(o)- Denotes something as 'first' or 'most important' Ancient Greek πρωτος (prōtos), first; principal, most important Protoneuron
pseud(o)- Denotes something false or fake Ancient Greek
psych(e)-, psych(o) Of or pertaining to the mind Ancient Greek ψυχή (psyché), breath, life, soul Psychology, psychiatry
pterygo- Pertaining to a wing Greek Lateral pterygoid plate
psor- Itching Psoriasis
-ptosis falling, drooping, downward placement, prolapse Apoptosis
-ptysis (a spitting), spitting, hemoptysis, the spitting of blood derived from the lungs or bronchial tubes hemoptysis
pulmon-, pulmo- Of or relating to the lungs. Latin (pulmo, pulmōn-, usually used in plural), a lung pulmonary
pyel(o)- pelvis Ancient Greek (pyelos) Pyelonephritis
pyo- pus Greek πύον Pyometra
pyro- fever Greek πῦρ, πυρετός Antipyretic

Q

Prefix/suffix Meaning Origin language and etymology Example(s)
quadr(i)- four Latin quadriceps

R

Prefix/suffix Meaning Origin language and etymology Example(s)
radio- radiation Latin radiowave
re- again, backward Latin relapse
rect(o)- rectum Latin
ren(o)- Of or pertaining to the kidney Latin (rēnes), kidney renal
reticul(o)- net Latin reticulocyte
retro- backward, behind Latin retroversion, retroverted
rhabd(o)- rod shaped, striated Greek ῥάβδος rhabdomyolysis
rhachi(o)- spine Greek ῥάχις rachial, rachialgia, rachidian, rachiopathy
rhin(o)- Of or pertaining to the nose Ancient Greek ῥίς, ῥῑνο- (rhīs, rhīno-), nose rhinoceros, rhinoplasty
rhod(o)- Denoting a rose-red color Ancient Greek ῥόδον (rhódon), rose rhodophyte
-rrhage burst forth Greek -ρραγία Hemorrhage
-rrhagia rapid flow of blood Greek -ρραγία
-rrhaphy surgical suturing Greek ῥαφή
-rrhea (AmE) flowing, discharge Greek -ρροια Galactorrhea, Diarrhea
-rrhexis rupture Greek ῥῆξις
-rrhoea (BrE) flowing, discharge Greek -ρροια diarrhoea
rubr(o)- Of or pertaining to the red nucleus of the brain Latin (ruber), red Rubrospinal

S

Prefix/suffix Meaning Origin language and etymology Example(s)
salping(o)- Of or pertaining to tubes e.g. fallopian tubes Ancient Greek σάλπιγξ, σαλπιγγ-, (sálpinx, salpingo-) trumpet (literally) Salpingectomy, Salpingopharyngeus muscle
sangui-, sanguine- Of or pertaining to blood Latin (sanguis, sanguin-), blood Sanguine
sarco- muscular, fleshlike Greek σάρξ, σαρκ- sarcoma
schist(o)- split, cleft Greek σχιστός (schistos)
schiz(o)- Denoting something 'split' or 'double-sided' Ancient Greek σχιζω; Irregular formation of the verb σχίζειν (schizein), to cut, split Schizophrenia
scler(o)- hardness Greek σκληρός atherosclerosis
-sclerosis hardening of the skin Greek Multiple sclerosis
scoli(o)- twisted Greek σκολιός (skolios) scoliosis
-scope instrument for viewing Greek -σκόπος stethoscope
-scopy use of instrument for viewing Greek -σκοπία endoscopy
scoto- darkness Greek skotos scotopic vision
semi- one-half, partly Latin
sial(o)- saliva, salivary gland Greek σίαλος (sialos) sialagogue
sigmoid(o)- sigmoid, S-shaped curvature Greek σιγμοειδής sigmoid colon
sinistr(o)- left, left side Latin
sinus- Of or pertaining to the sinus Latin (sinus), a curve, bend, bay Sinusitis
sito- food, grain Greek σῖτος
somat(o)-, somatico- body, bodily Greek σῶμα
-spadias slit, fissure Greek hypospadias, epispadias
spasmo- spasm Greek σπασμός Spasmodic dysphonia
sperma-, spermo-, spermato- semen, spermatozoa Greek σπέρμα (sperma) Spermatogenesis
splanchn(i)-, splanchn(o)- viscera Greek σπλάγχνον
splen(o)- spleen Greek σπλήν, σπλην- Splenectomy
spondyl(o)- Of or pertaining to the spine, the vertebra Greek σπόνδυλος / σφόνδυλος, (spóndylos, sphóndylos), the spine Spondylitis
squamos(o)- Denoting something as 'full of scales' or 'scaly' Latin sqāmōsus, full of scales; scaly Squamous cell
-stasis stop, stand Greek στάσις
-staxis dripping, trickling Greek στακτός
sten(o)- Denoting something as 'narrow in shape' or pertaining to narrowness Ancient Greek στενός (stenos); narrow, short Stenography
-stenosis abnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or other tubular organ or structure Ancient Greek στενός (stenos), narrow; short Stenosis, Restenosis
steth(o)- Of or pertaining to the upper chest, chest, the area above the breast and under the neck Ancient Greek στῆθος (stēthos), chest, cuirass Stethoscope
stheno- strength, force, power Greek σθένος
stom(a) mouth Greek στόμα stomatognathic system
stomat(o)- Of or pertaining to the mouth Ancient Greek στόμα, στοματ- (stóma, stomat-), mouth Stomatogastric
-stomy creation of an opening Greek -στομία colostomy
sub- beneath Latin subcutaneous tissue
super- in excess, above, superior Latin superior vena cava
supra- above, excessive Latin supraorbital vein
sy, syl-, sym-, syn-, sys- Indicates similarity, likeness, or being together; Assimilates before some consonants: before l to syl-, s to sys-, before a labial consonant to sym-. Ancient Greek συν- (syn), with, together Synalgia, synesthesia, syssarcosis

T

Prefix/suffix Meaning Origin language and etymology Example(s)
tachy- Denoting something as fast, irregularly fast Ancient Greek ταχύς (tachys), fast, quickly Tachycardia
-tension, -tensive pressure Latin Hypertension
tetan- rigid, tense tetanus
thec- case, sheath Ancient Greek θήκη (theke) Intrathecal
thel(e)-, thel(o)- Of or pertaining to a nipple [uncommon as a prefix] Ancient Greek θηλή (thēlē), a teat, nipple Theleplasty
thely- Denoting something as 'relating to a woman, feminine' Ancient Greek θῆλυς (thēlys), female, feminine Thelygenous
therap(o)- treatment Ancient Greek (therapeía) hydrotherapy
therm(o)- heat Ancient Greek θερμός (thermós)
thorac(i)-, thorac(o)-, thoracico- Of or pertaining to the upper chest, chest; the area above the breast and under the neck Latin (thōrāx) < Ancient Greek θώραξ (thōrax), chest, cuirass Thorax
thromb(o)- Of or relating to a blood clot, clotting of blood Ancient Greek θρόμβος (thrómbos), lump, piece, clot of blood Thrombus, Thrombocytopenia
thyr(o)- thyroid Greek θυρεο-ειδής
thym(o)(ia)- emotions Greek: "thymos," spirit, soul; courage; breath, mind, emotions dysthymia
-tic pertaining to Greek -τικός
toco- childbirth Greek τόκος
-tome cutting instrument Greek τομή
-tomy act of cutting; incising, incision Greek -τομία Gastrotomy
tono- tone, tension, pressure Greek τόνος
-tony tension Greek -τονία
top(o)- place, topical Greek τόπος Topical anesthetic
tort(i)- twisted Latin tortus Torticollis
tox(i)-, tox(o)-, toxic(o)- toxin, poison Greek τοξικόν Toxoplasmosis
trache(a)- trachea Greek τραχεία Tracheotomy
trachel(o)- Of or pertaining to the neck Ancient Greek τράχηλος (tráchēlos), neck tracheloplasty
trans- Denoting something as moving or situated 'across' or 'through' Latin (trāns), across, through Transfusion
trich(i)-, trichia, trich(o)- Of or pertaining to hair, hair-like structure Ancient Greek θρίξ, τριχ(ο)- (thríx, trich(o)-), hair Trichocyst
-tripsy crushing Greek τρίψις Lithotripsy
-trophy nourishment, development Greek -τροφία, τροφή Pseudohypertrophy
tympan(o)- eardrum Greek τύμπανον Tympanocentesis

U

Prefix/suffix Meaning Origin language and etymology Example(s)
-ula, -ule small Latin Nodule
ultra- beyond, excessive Latin
umbilic- Of or pertaining to the navel, the umbilicus Latin (umbilīcus), navel, belly-button Umbilical
ungui- Of or pertaining to the nail, a claw Latin (unguis), nail, claw Unguiform, Ungual
un(i)- one Latin (unus) Unilateral hearing loss
ur(o)- Of or pertaining to urine, the urinary system; (specifically) pertaining to the physiological chemistry of urine Ancient Greek οὖρον (ouron), urine Urology
uri(c)-, urico- uric acid Greek οὐρικός
urin- Of or pertaining to urine, the urinary system Latin (ūrīna), urine < Ancient Greek ουρον (ouron), see above. Uriniferous
uter(o)- Of or pertaining to the uterus or womb Latin (uterus), womb, uterus Uterus

V

Prefix or suffix Meaning Origin language and etymology Examples
vagin- Of or pertaining to the vagina Latin (vāgīna), sheath, scabbard Vagina
varic(o)- swollen or twisted vein Latin varix varicose
vas(o)- duct, blood vessel Latin vasoconstriction
vasculo- blood vessel Latin vāsculum
ven- Of or pertaining to the (blood) veins, a vein (used in terms pertaining to the vascular system) Latin (vēna), blood-vessel, vein Vein, Venospasm
ventr(o)- Of or pertaining to the belly; the stomach cavities Latin (venter), the belly, the stomach; the womb Ventrodorsal
ventricul(o)- Of or pertaining to the ventricles; any hollow region inside an organ Latin (venter), the ventricles of the heart, the ventricles of the brain Cardiac ventriculography
-version turning Latin versiō anteversion, retroversion
vesic(o)- Of or pertaining to the bladder Latin (vēsīca), bladder; blister Vesica
viscer(o)- Of or pertaining to the internal organs, the viscera Latin (viscera), internal organs; plural of (viscerum), internal organ Viscera

X

Prefix/suffix Meaning Origin language and etymology Example(s)
xanth(o)- Denoting a yellow color, an abnormally yellow color Ancient Greek ξανθός (xanthós), yellow Xanthopathy
xen(o)- Foreign, different Greek ξένος (xenos), stranger Xenograft
xer(o)- dry, desert-like Greek ξερός (xeros), dry Xerostomia

Y

Prefix/suffix Meaning Origin language and etymology Example(s)
-y condition or process of Latin -ia < Greek -ία Surgery

Z

Prefix/suffix Meaning Origin language and etymology Example(s)
zo(o)- animal, animal life Greek ζῷον zoology
zym(o)- fermentation Greek ζύμη enzyme, lysozyme

English meanings

This section contains lists of different root classification (e.g. body components, quantity, description, etc.). Each list is alphabetized by English meanings, with the corresponding Greek and Latin roots given.

Roots of the body

Roots of bodily concepts

Bodily concept Greek root Latin root Other root
Digestion -pepsia - -
Disease -pathy - -
Eating -phagia - -

Roots of body parts and components

(Internal anatomy, external anatomy, body fluids, body substances)

Body part or component Greek root Latin root Other root
abdomen lapar(o)- abdomin- -
aorta aort(o)- aort(o)- -
arm brachi(o)- - -
armpit - axill- -
artery arteri(o)- - -
back - dors- -
big toe - allic- -
bladder cyst(o)- vesic(o)- -
blood haemat-, hemat- (haem-, hem-) sangui-, sanguine- -
blood clot thromb(o)- - -
blood vessel angi(o)- vascul-, vas- -
body somat-, som- corpor- -
bone oste(o)- ossi- -
bone marrow, marrow myel(o)- medull- -
brain encephal(o)- cerebr(o)- -
breast mast(o)- mamm(o)- -
chest steth(o)- - -
cheek -Zygomatic bucc- -
ear ot(o)- aur(i)- -
eggs, ova oo- ov- -
eye ophthalm(o)- ocul(o)- optic(o)- [French]
eyelid blephar(o)- cili-; palpebr- -
face prosop(o)- faci(o)- -
fallopian tubes salping(o)- - -
fat, fatty tissue lip(o)- adip- -
finger dactyl(o)- digit- -
forehead - front(o)- -
gallbladder cholecyst(o)- fell- -
genitals, sexually undifferentiated gon(o)-, phall(o)- - -
gland aden(o)- - -
glans penis or clitoridis balan(o)- - -
gums - gingiv- -
hair trich(o)- capill- -
hand cheir(o)-, chir(o)- manu- -
head cephal(o)- capit(o)- -
heart cardi(o)- cordi- -
hip, hip-joint - cox- -
horn cerat(o)- cornu- -
intestine enter(o)- - -
jaw gnath(o)- - -
kidney nephr(o)- ren- -
knee gon- genu- -
lip cheil(o)-, chil(o)- labi(o)- -
liver hepat(o)- (hepatic-) jecor- -
loins, pubic region episi(o)- pudend- -
lungs pneumon- pulmon(i)- (pulmo-) -
marrow, bone marrow myel(o)- medull- -
mind psych- ment- -
mouth stomat(o)- or- -
muscle my(o)- - -
nail onych(o)- ungui- -
navel omphal(o)- umbilic- -
neck trachel(o)- cervic- -
nerve; the nervous system neur(o)- nerv- -
nipple, teat thele- papill-, mammill- -
nose rhin(o)- nas- -
ovary oophor(o)- ovari(o)- -
pelvis pyel(o)- pelv(i)- -
penis pe(o)- - -
pupil (of the eye) cor-, core-, coro- - -
rib pleur(o)- cost(o)- -
rib cage thorac(i)-, thorac(o)- - -
shoulder om(o)- テンプレート:Not a typo(o)- -
sinus - sinus- -
skin dermat(o)- (derm-) cut-, cuticul- -
skull crani(o)- - -
stomach gastr(o)- ventr(o)- -
testis orchi(o)-, orchid(o)- - -
throat (upper throat cavity) pharyng(o)- - -
throat (lower throat cavity/voice box]) laryng(o)- - -
thumb - pollic- -
tooth odont(o)- dent(i)- -
tongue gloss-, glott- lingu(a)- -
toe dactyl(o)- digit- -
tumour cel-, onc(o)- tum- -
ureter ureter(o)- ureter(o)- -
urethra urethr(o)-, urethr(a)- urethr(o)-, urethr(a)- -
urine, urinary System ur(o)- urin(o)- -
uterine tubes sarping(o)- sarping(o)- -
uterus hyster(o)-, metr(o)- uter(o)- -
vagina colp(o)- vagin- -
vein phleb(o)- ven- -
vulva episi(o)- vulv- -
womb hyster(o)-, metr(o)- uter(o)- -
wrist carp(o)- carp(o)- -

色の語幹

Color 日本語 Greek root in English Latin root in English Other root
black melano- nigr- メラノサイト、acanthosis nigricans(黒色表皮種)
blue cyano- - シアノバクテリア、チアノーゼ
gray, grey 灰色 polio- - ポリオ=poliomyelitis 灰白髄炎
green chlor(o)- vir- クロロフィル(葉緑体)、ビリジアン(緑色)
purple porphyr(o)- purpur-, purpureo- ポルフィリン、purpura(紫斑)
red erythr(o)-, rhod(o)- rub-, rubr- エリスロサイト(赤血球)、ロドプシン、pityriasis rubra(紅色粃糠疹)
red-orange 赤-オレンジ cirrh(o)- - Cirrhosis(肝硬変)
white leuc-, leuk- alb- leukocyte(白血球),アルビノ(白子)
yellow 黄色 xanth(o)- flav- jaun - [French] xanthoma(黄色腫)、jaundice(黄疸)、イソフラボン

Roots of description

(Size, shape, strength, etc.)

Description Greek root in English Latin root in English Other root
bad, incorrect cac(o)-, dys- mal(e)- -
bent, crooked ankyl(o)- prav(i)- -
big mega-, megal(o)- magn(i)- -
biggest megist- maxim- -
broad, wide eury- lat(i)- -
cold cry(o)- frig(i)- -
dead necr(o)- mort- -
equal is(o)- equ(i)- -
false pseud(o)- fals(i)- -
female, feminine thely- - -
flat platy- plan(i)- -
good, well eu- ben(e)-, bon(i)- -
great mega-, megal(o)- magn(i)- -
hard scler(o)- dur(i)- -
heavy bar(o)- grav(i)- -
hollow coel(o)- cav(i)- -
huge megal(o)- magn(i)- -
incorrect, bad cac(o)-, dys- mal(e)- -
irregular poikil(o) -
large; extremely large mega- magn(i)- -
largest megist- maxim- -
long macr(o)- long(i)- -
male, masculine arseno- vir- -
narrow sten(o)- angust(i)- -
new neo- nov(i)- -
normal, correct orth(o)- rect(i)- -
old paleo- veter- -
sharp oxy- ac- -
short brachy- brev(i)- -
small micr(o)- parv(i)- (rare) -
smallest - minim- -
slow brady- tard(i)- -
fast tachy- celer- -
soft malac(o)- moll(i)- -
straight orth(o)- rect(i)- -
thick pachy- crass(i)- -
varied, various poikilo- vari- -
well, good eu- ben(e)- -
wide, broad eury- lat(i)- -

位置の語幹

Description 日本語 Greek root in English Latin root in English Other root
around,surrounding 近く、周囲 peri- circum- - pericardium 心膜、left circumflex coronary artery 左冠動脈回旋枝
left levo- laev(o)-, sinistr- - レボドーパ(L-dopamine、光学異性L体ドーパミン)、ventriculus sinister 左心室
middle mes(o)- medi- - メゾテリオーマ(中皮腫;悪性の中皮腫はアスベストと強関連)、mesoderm 中胚葉、media ( tunica media) 中膜
right dexi(o)- dextr(o)- - Dexitrocardia 右心症(内臓逆位を伴うことも)
above epi- supra- - epinephrine エピネフリン(腎の上(副腎)からのホルモン) epigenetics エピジェネティクス supra-ventricular tachycardia 上室性頻拍
before pro- ante- - プロドラッグ(生体内に入ってから活性化する薬)、antenatal(出生前;prenatal 周産期の)

量の語幹

(Amount, quantity)

Description 日本語 Greek root in English Latin root in English Other root
double 二重 diplo- dupli- - diploid 二倍体
equal 等しい iso- equi- - isotype 免疫グロブリンのアイソタイプ、
few 少しの、いくつかの oligo- pauci- - オリゴ糖、Pauci-immune necrotizing glomerulonephritis
half 半分 hemi- semi- demi- (French) hemiplegia 片麻痺 semi-vegetarian 半菜食主義者
many, much poly- multi- - polymorphism 多型 multigenic 多遺伝子性
twice 2度 dis- bis- - ビスホスホネート(骨粗鬆治療薬)

See also